Classical Approaches to Management
Later, Classical Management also came to be associated with Human Relations development. No specific timelines can be drawn to view and study various aspects of Classical Management because their propounding and practice often overlapped each other. However, it is certain that the emergence of Bureaucratic, Administrative, Scientific Management and Human Relations predate World War II. World War II involved the development of weapons, armory, vehicles, airplanes, gear and logistics an unprecedented magnitude. This led to the amalgamation of different theories of classical management and development of the Systems Theory based on analysis of systems that included men, machines, material and money. Here our discussion only relates to the pre-World War II era school of management, called The Classical School of management. Max Weber (1864-1924), Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915), Henri Gnatt (1861-1919), Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924), and Henri Foyal (1841-1925) were its chief proponents.Toward the turn of the 19th century, production and industrial management were marred by chaotic scenes. Overburdening, whimsical decision making led to the relinquishment of duties by the employees. A conflict of interest often arose between the management and the workers. As a result, a lot of time and energy was wasted in conflict resolution. The need to end the state of arbitrariness at the workplace made the managements to base management on scientific principles. Since the inculcation of scientific temperament was being mooted in all spheres of life, the world was enjoying the fruits of scientific innovation and invention. Frederick Taylor, Frank Gilberth, Henry Gnatt, and many others devised theories of scientific management at the workplace. Henri Gnatt contributed to the movement of scientific management by devising the Gnatt Chart. Gnatt chart helped in the scheduling of tasks to make optimum use of manpower and energy. The movement of a worker, in accomplishing aparticular task, was broken up into small actions and studied part by part.