Marxist view on globalisation
People and states get more and more freedom in choosing their behaviour and the way of life in general, however everyone should understand that such freedom involves certain responsibilities.
According to a typical definition, globalization is "the intensification of economic, political, social and cultural relations across borders" (Holm and Sorensen, 1995). Speaking about the bases of this phenomenon it is possible to note that some features of modern globalization have a long history. Roots of this process are in the epoch when colonial empires have laid the foundation of the first basis of the international economic relations in this millennium. However the modern international economic relations underlying globalization essentially differ from those that have been generated from the beginning of an epoch of Great geographical discoveries and foundation of colonial empires.
Globalisation is an all-round rapprochement and integration of all countries of the world in technological, informational, cultural, economic and political spheres. Though, the term ‘globalization’ is rather new and "begs for clearer conceptualization and more precise empirical application" (Krieger, 1999: xii), the given phenomenon has its own history. Tendencies to integration and rapprochement between the states existed always, but most considerably these tendencies were presented in two historical periods: first, in the middle of the nineteenth century before the World War I, and secondly in the 1990s years of the twentieth century.
Technological basis of the first wave of globalization were phone and telegraph in the sphere of communications, railway construction in the sphere of transport, assembly line production in industry. Technological shifts have caused economical ones expressed first of all in the strengthening of economic interdependence and formation of the uniform world economy.
About constantly amplifying internationalization (globalization) of economic development testifies also the fact that the world trade grew more quickly than world production, so the role of the international economic relations constantly increased. Since 1970s of the nineteenth century alongside with export of goods grows export of the capital. Economic globalization in the second half the nineteenth – the beginning of the twentieth century has also pushed integration processes in other spheres. During this period appeared the first international inter-governmental (The Universal Postal Union, International Telecommunication Union) and non-governmental (the Red Cross) organizations. People have started to conduct international sports competitions that have led to revival of the Olympic movement and creation of the international sports federations.
But most of all globalization manifested itself in the political sphere. Alongside world economics it is now possible to speak about world politics. So let us oppose the Marxist view of globalisation to that of liberalism, using their assessment of the North-South divide in the contemporary global world.
The North-South divide is just one of the "global economic challenges we have to confront in the twenty-first century. Economic scarcity’ in the form of shrinking global markets and increasing production costs is intensifying economic rivalries. Technology races and various forms of commercial warfare have replaced the arms race of the Cold War days. According to Japanese politician Isihara Shintaro (Japan