Materialism and Dualism
It has been said to be an emphasis on the lower order needs for material comfort and physical safety when compared to higher-order needs like self-expression and quality of life and as a contrast to post-materialism.(Inglehart, 2000). Some researchers consider materialism as “a value that guides people’s choices and conduct in a variety of situations, including, but not limited to, consumption arenas” (Richins and Dawson, 1992, 307). Materialism therefore generally refers to the placing of a relatively high value on wealth and material goods.around the 6th century B.C. and in India and China at an even earlier period. Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato all had something to say about materialism. Christianity brought the concept of the spirit or supernatural into the subject. Rene Descartes, the Father of Modern Philosophy, proposed the Cartesian Dualism, which spoke about an irreconcilable dualism of mind and body in the 17th century. Materialism was brought back by Thomas Hobbes and it flourished duringthe 18th to the 20th centuries with advances in chemistry, physics, and mechanics. Charles Darwin furthered the materialistic view through his works which explained the evolution of every living thing on earth without any need for a supernatural power to do things.(1998). Organismic theories have been suggested for explaining the inverse relationship between materialism and quality of life. Researchers have said that those who believe in intrinsic goals without expecting external rewards or approval can reach a valuable and satisfactory quality of life. Those who believe that extrinsic goals like external rewards and approval tend to lower their well-being and have greater distress in the long run ( Roberts and Clement, 80). Other researchers believed that extrinsic goals like financial success, social recognition, and an appealing appearance were negatively related to a good quality of life which resulted in poor adjustment and poor mental health.