Occupational Psychology

Because of this wide scope of responsibilities, no occupational psychologist can obtain a professional license unless he proves his sound knowledge and understanding of eight areas of specialization: 1) ergonomics, or the human-machine interaction. 2) design of safe and healthy work environment. 3) design of appropriate tests and exercises for personnel selection and assessment. 4) performance appraisal and career development. 5) counseling and personal development. 6) design and evaluation of training needs. 7) employee relations and motivation. and 8) organizational development and change (Graves &amp. Lindley, 2005).
In effect, what the occupational psychologists do for people and organizations in the workplace is conduct appropriate tests and job-related exercises to pinpoint the abilities of individuals and develop their potentials. For this activity, an organization depends on occupational psychologists for the selection process and career counseling. They are also tasked to motivate people by designing payment and reward systems and advising on health and safety promotion. They help people and organizations adapt to change through change in attitudes and behaviors with the end in view of improving service to customers. In the modern-day context of the workplace, they help design machines and computer systems that are easy to use. On and off the job, the occupational psychologist appraises performance and assist people in coping with stress. In making organizations more effective, they advise on the best type of management systems, identify the best human resource strategies, and design jobs that match people’s skills (Psychometrics online).
Psychometrics, or the measurement of one’s mental capabilities, is used extensively in occupational psychology to select the candidates best suited for the job. Recruitment of employees becomes more efficient if an occupational psychologist handles the entire process from wording the wanted ad to identifying the most suitable candidates. In this process, they conduct psychological tests and interviews to evaluate the mental balance of candidates, monitor and validate the selection procedures, and design the short-listing methods for the most promising candidates (Ibid). But perhaps the most exacting job of occupational psychologists, for which an increasing number of companies from multinationals to SMEs get the services of these specialists, is that of serving as mediators and managers of organizational conflict, which is closely associated with bullying in the workplace. In such a conflict, some members of an organization tend to receive a raw deal, which, if left unresolved, could destroy the organization over the long haul.
Bullying in the Workplace
Bullying has been going on in the workplace since time immemorial but gained academic interest only lately, brought about first by the 1976 book "The Harassed Worker" by American Carol Brodsky and then with a series of research work started by Heinz Leymann in 1986 in Scandinavia. In