Psycholigical Disorders

Discussion will also produce possible hospitalization therapies as well as when individuals should be admitted to a hospital based on symptoms. Finally, a brief summary of a case study will round out the discussion.
One of the main disputes surrounding hallucination therapeutic evaluation is if the disorder is standalone or a side-effect of a much more psychological disorder such as Schizophrenia. The terminology surrounding hallucinations defines it as "a perception in the absence of sensory stimulation that is confused with reality (Psychology: Concepts and Connections, pg 518).
As many psychiatrists evaluate their patients in a clinical surrounding, it would be circumspect to immediately label a person who is suffering from hallucinations as being diagnosed with Schizophrenia. One of the more important aspects of the diagnoses as to if the individual is suffering from hallucinations is to follow the same procedural steps in diagnosing any person with an ailment and that is to start with the symptoms
Symptoms of hallucinations can either result from a traumatic event, results of other medical disorders such as epilepsy, olfactory seizures or from a variety of means of neurological aetiology. To understand the symptoms of these various forms of hallucinations, there is a need to understand the different types of neurological hallucinations that lead to correct diagnosis of symptoms. These include:
GustatorGustatory hallucinations: are seldom found as an early sign of cognitive derangement. Clinical evolution could point toward early manifestations of Alzheimer’s Dementia. Patients suffering from psychotic depression may also, report the illusion of bad taste in their mouth.
Peduncular hallucinations: They originate from lesions of the mid-brain tegmentum. They may be elaborated and complex, rich in color, and depict landscapes, familiar faces, buildings, or lilliputian visions. Feeling tone may be absent, and the patient witnesses them with calm amusement.
Auditory and Vertiginous Hallucinations:
1 Auditory: Stimuli of the transverse gyrus of Heschl of the temporal lobe, may elicit auditory events.
2. Vertiginous: Meniere’s disease is the cause of severe kinesthetic hallucinations , accompanied by nausea, dizziness, and malaise. It may be also have tinnitus, often described as "chirping", or as the sound of crickets. This must be clinically differentiated from acoustic neuroma, vertebro-basilar artery syndromes, and other posterior fossa entities.
Autoscopic hallucinations: These are a blend of visual and proprioceptive hallucinations. In these cases, the vision is of one’s double, like in a mirror, sometimes repeating one’s gestures, and on occasions busy with other activities, a veritable doppelganger. They may be secondary to hypnopompic hallucinations, migraine, seizure disorders, delirium, encephalitis, post-concussion syndrome, or even non-neurological events such as: transcendental meditation, mystic events, use of hallucinogens, and near death experiences (Boza, 1981)
The symptoms, as mentioned above vary from patient to patient depending on their neurological dysfunction. The Merck Manual of Geriatrics entertains hallucinations as an ongoing concern for the elderly patients under doctor’s care and suggests that the symptoms of hallucinations in the