Psychology (personality and social psychology
The three personality factors that were originally developed in the study of personality were (a)Neuroticism (b) Extraversion and (c) Openness to experience(Bell et al, 1972).. This was the original version of the Personality measurement Inventory that was referred to as the NEO (Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory) Scale and was used as a part of studies conducted on ageing. Costa and McCrae (1985) examined competing personality theories and developed two additional traits. These two factors were Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Based upon this, they published their revised personality list which included all the five factors, ranking as equally important constituent elements of personality (Costa and McCrae, 1985). Moreover, each of these broad personality factors also comprised a set of separate dimensions within each.
For example, the Neuroticism factor included such personality traits such as anxiety, depression, hostility, self consciousness, impulsiveness and vulnerability to stress. This was a reflection of the inner mental state of the individual. The extraversion factor is a personality measure of the degree of sociability in an individual’s personality. It comprises the qualities of warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking and positive emotion. The Openness personality factor comprises a range of internal attributes such as fantasy, feelings, ideas, actions, values and aesthetics. The Agreeableness factor developed by Costa and McCrae includes trust, straightforwardness, altruism, modesty, compliance and tender-mindedness. The last personality factor – Conscientiousness, includes the sub factors of Competence, order, dutifulness, self discipline, striving and achievement striving. Through an analysis of all of these major factors and the sub factors that comprise them, it is therefore possible to arrive at a detailed view of the