Substance Abuse and Dependence
Also, the recent researches point to the severe and long lasting changes that can take place in a person due to drug abuse as well as improper and loss of voluntary control. (Volkow, 2004)
Both drug abuse and dependence are taken as separate entities in medicine. Addiction is defined as the "intense desire for the drug with and with an impaired ability to control the urges to take the drug even at the expense of serious adverse consequences." (Volkow, 2004)
Similarly, drug dependence is defined as the "withdrawal symptoms seen in patients after the discontinuation of the drugs take place, but demonstrate different adaptation patterns seen in drug addicts." (Volkow, 2004)
The efforts that have been put into this issue are substantial all over the world. This issue is not a problem of one area or civilization only, but affects all the societies in more or less some way. The efforts have been largely in educating the general public about the negative effects of substance abuse, the health care plans curtailing to the needs of the abusers and dependants, social counseling and help for people related to these sufferers, and psychological and mental health provisions so as to avoid any social issues like abuse, violence etc.
The questions that are put on such efforts are simple. Do they work And of these efforts, which do and which don’t. Apart from researches related to the psychological factors and medical paraphernalia related to substance abuse, it is now under study to find out the advantages of the different interventions in actually reducing drug and substance abuse. More so what evidence is present that supports interventions This report focuses on the evidences collected from various studies and reports and evaluates the impact and future aspects of these interventions.
The report is formatted to highlight the issue and the different consequences of substance abuse and dependence. This report focuses on the issue of substance abuse and dependence in the UK, and therefore evidence pertaining to UK. It highlights the different strategies that are being undertaken in health and social care sectors. It looks into the needs of patients with substance abuse and dependence, the different studies that have been conducted with results. It is hoped that this study will contribute in making a clearer picture regarding interventions for substance abuse and dependence.
TYPES AND HEIRARCHIES OF EVIDENCE.
Substance abuse and dependence is becoming a prevalent and increasingly dangerous feature of the modern society. This issue sadly, has encompassed a large variation of age groups, including adolescents, teens, adults and the elderly. (Drug Abuse, How It Can Be Reduced 2005) Many factors make up this picture, and factors such as cultural aspects, availability, frequency, and use must also be taken into consideration. The management of such cases therefore becomes all the more difficult, as the factors that predispose these age groups to substance abuse are variable. The interventions are very variable, and therefore, an issue of debate in all countries of the world as to which are better suited to the needs and cultural and social norms of the societies. The debates revolve around issues of availability of drugs and methods of reducing, preventing and eliminating drugs. (Drug Abuse, How